When the huge crowd of people finally showed up the troops were intimidated by the sheer size of the people present. The success of the Russian Bolshevik revolution & Russian socialist economy, at a time when the capitalist economy was really under the Great Depression (1929), attracted many leaders such as Pt. As a result of the war, Russia went into major debt, and everyday goods became unavailable for the peasants, because they could not afford them. Because Russia used the Julian Calendar at the time it is known as the February Revolution. Nicholas and his entire family were executed on July 16, 1918, by the Bolsheviks. One of the reasons for the occurrence of French revolution comprise the radical, common and monetary features that were widespread in France before the eruption of the rebellion. When the czar was away on the battle, the internal administration collapsed badly. The merchants and traders started indulging in hoarding and black marketing to make a profit. The government of Alexander Kerensky took the unpopular decision to continue the war. The situation of industrial unrest developed by the opening of the 20th century. GS 1 Structure, Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains, GS 2 Structure, Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains, GS 3 Structure, Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains, GS 4 Structure Strategy and Syllabus for UPSC Mains. He argues that the growth of … Both of these revolutions, in reality, were two phases of one single phenomenon. The common masses were sufferings immensely and the level of discontent was very high. The most discontent community was peasants. October Revolution, also called Bolshevik Revolution, (Nov. 6–7, 1917), was the second and last major phase of the Russian Revolution, with the first being February Revolution. The communist parties started emerging everywhere because it was a great morale booster. Russia’s government was still do… The success of the Bolshevik revolution (1917) transformed communism from theory into practice. Although the practice in most of Europe was ended by the time of the Renaissance in the late 16th century, it was still being carried out in Russia well into the 19th century. The main causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were the poverty of the peasant class, the rise of the urban industrial class, the antiquated and oppressed military, a growing intellectual movement, and the inefficiency and autocracy of the Tsarist regime. It would pave the way for the formation of a communist super-state: The Soviet Union. This holy man was involved in all unholy activities. The war would end in 1923 with Lenin’s’ red army claiming victory. Given below is a good account on the same topic previous years history questions for UPSC Mains, important events in world history from 3000 BC to 1950 AD, Visit the linked article to get tips on how to, The war would end in 1923 with Lenin’s’ red army claiming victory. The control of industries was transferred to committees of workers. This, together with the cardinal Marxist principle of the unity of the interests of working classes all over the world, and their socialist vision of an oppression-free world, was the … Read the summaries to answer questions on the next page. He considered … Topic: History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society. The news of this incidence spread like wildfire. Nicholas II abdicated the throne ending centuries of his family rule in Russia. Largely an Agrarian country with impoverished and highly taxed peasants. Germany had seized key Russian territories which further caused food shortages and disrupting the economy as a result. In fact, the Russian Revolution was brought about by the working people of Russia, because they were the most oppressed and therefore most interested in a total transformation of the social and political system which exploited them. Its casualties were far more than any other nations in the war. When it did, it bought with a multitude of political and social changes. 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Both impacted each other. came to Russia much later compared to the rest of Europe. By the end of 1916, two years of total war had placed enormous strain on all combatant nations. The condition of the peasantry was very bad. A liberal government was formed under Prince George Lvov. To know what are the important events in world history from 3000 BC to 1950 AD, visit the linked article. A general strike of workers followed, in which soldiers and others soon joined. Answer: Main causes were: Autocratic rule of Tsars: In 1914, the Russian emperor was Tsar Nicholas II. When it did, it bought with a multitude of political and social changes. The condition of the peasantry was very bad. Russian Revolution: UPSC Notes – Download PDF Here, Russia joined its Serbian, French and British allies in declaring war against the Central Powers of Austria, Germany and Ottoman Turkey on August 1914. Russian Revolution, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power, leading to the creation of the Soviet Union. 2. To this effect, he dissolved the Russian parliament through which he had promised to implement reforms. By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. Russian revolution completed the process commenced by the French Revolution of 1789. This resulted in the downfall of the Czarist regime. In this article, I wanna walk you through the World War 1 For UPSC, World History (UPSC Notes).. For most of you, World History appears to be a little boring but let us remind that this is a scoring section provided you have prepared it smartly considering the cost-benefit aspect in the picture. But the social and economic changes did not take place in Russia. All the events between 1854 and 1921 will be discussed. His regime was based on the ideals of royal absolutism, semi-divine nature of kingship, aristocratic privileges, feudal institutions, and arbitrary judicial-legal system. Conditions for Revolution. His reforms were hurting the interests of nobles and feudal lords. As a result of this, an extremely volatile situation developed. Further: 1. The… The February revolution began on March 8, 1917. While the effect of the French revolution was initially confined to Europe the consequences of the Russian revolution were truly global. Slow pace of Reforms under Tsar Alexander II. Rasputin was murdered by nobles of his hold over the imperial court on December 30, 1916, but the damage was already done. First, in the month of March (February), second in the month of November (October). For more preparation materials they can refer to the links given in the table below. It was where the last vestiges of feudalism – serfdom – was still in practice. This reformative PM was murdered in 1911. Russian revolution completed the process commenced by the French Revolution of 1789. . As a result of which civil war commenced. Agitations and demonstrations commenced everywhere. This regime would have failed even without war. But these were largely a result of the efforts of foreign investors. Introduction. Because it had mass appeal when compared to the capitalist system. They started accepting socialism as a solution to their problems and problems in the world. Read about World History-related articles important from UPSC exam’s point of view: The Russia of the 1900s was one of the most economically backwards and least industrialised nations in Europe with a large population of peasants and a growing number of industrial workers. The success of the Bolshevik revolution resulted in the commencement of the civil war in Russia. Read about the Russian Industrial Revolution in the linked article. Under these circumstances, Czar was persuaded to abdicate in favor of his brother Michael. Read in detail about World War I in the linked article. Solve previous years history questions for UPSC Mains by visiting the linked article. A political revolution was successfully completed. A friend, philosopher and guide to Civil Services aspirants…. As a result of this, an extremely volatile situation developed. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the most significant events of the twentieth century that ended centuries of monarchy in Russia and brought forth the first constitutionally communist state in the world. On 8th March 1917, when a group of hungry women attacked shop selling bread, police fired upon. Elucidate. Autocratic Rule of the Czars: Czar Alexander II brought some reforms in Russia and became famous among all. Russia had not modernised its army at the pace that Germany had and as a result, the war proved disastrous for Russia. The social causes of the Russian Revolution mainly came from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime, and Nicholas’s failures in World War I. HOW TO WRITE PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAY FOR UPSC? Discuss the causes of Russian revolution in comparison with French revolution. When corpses of soldiers started returning, the discontent among masses increased enormously. Russia was declared a communist state this social and economic revolution got complete. The Russian Bolshevik revolution was responsible for the commencement of the cold war in the long run as the Cold War was the outcome of the ideological difference between capitalism and communism. Russian Revolution of 1917 was a response & reaction to the evils of the Czarist regime. (250 words) … First socialist revolution was made in ‘backward’ Russia, a society that was capitalist with strong remnants of feudal social and economic power intact, a working class still linked with land, and a peasantry that primarily aspired to individual land ownership. Therefore the level of discontent among common masses was very high. The Causes of the Russian Revolution in March 1917 There were many causes to explain the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in March 1917. Left with no choice, Nicholas II agreed to implement reforms, which would be known as the. The rise of communist Russia was an important factor behind the adoption of policy appeasement by western democratic nations. Although nothing significant came out of the 1905 revolution, the events of Bloody Sunday had alienated the Tsar from his people. The then prevailing condition of Russia was largely responsible for the revolution. French Revolution 1. Most of the land was owned by feudal lords. For more preparation materials they can refer to the links given in the table below. It would pave the way for the formation of a communist super-state: The Soviet Union. He fought a number of wars to expand his empire in the north and west in Europe. Taking advantage of this prevailing scenario, Lenin assisted by Trotsky, captured power on the night of 6-7 November 1917 with the help of his revolutionary red guards. His influence and hold over the Russian imperial family were well known at the time. The massacre sparked the Russian revolution of 1905, during which angry workers responded with a series of crippling strikes throughout the country. The government was not very effective in its policies. It did not help matters when she began dismissing elected officials on the alleged advice of the controversial preacher and mystic, Rasputin. The massacre sparked the Russian revolution of 1905, during which angry workers responded with a series of crippling strikes throughout the country. … The failure of Russian on battlefield added fuel to fire. What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution? Important Personalities of the Russian Revolution. Following is a summary of the causes and events of Russian Revolution. History of Harshavardhana Pushyabhuti (606 to 647 CE). He had borne the expenditure of war by taxing the common people of Russia. The Soviet Union would become a formidable player during the events of the Cold war in the coming decades. A revolution had broken out in Russia in 1905. What was the Russian revolution? The Russian revolution also supported the cause of communism and socialism that had declined after the First World War. of the Russian Revolution REVIEW Specific Objective: Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, including Lenin’s use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control. The Industrial Revolution came to Russia much later compared to the rest of Europe. Spread of Industrial Revolution outside Britain. Hopin to rally the Russian troops and the people in the wake of the deteriorating condition of the war front, Tsar Nicholas II personally made his way to take command of the army, leaving his wife, Tsarina Alexandra in charge of the government. The reforms got derailed when Stolypin was no more and the level of discontent continued to increase among the masses. The new government under Lenin was composed of a council of soldiers, peasants and workers. This article will give details about the Russian Revolution for the Civil Services Examination. The emancipation of serfs would set off a chain of events that would lead to the Russian Revolution in the coming years. The strikes further threatened to cripple Russia’s already fragile economy. Protestors took to the streets of the capital of St. Petersburg angry over chronic food shortages. Between 1906 and 1911, many peasants benefited by his reforms. In April 1917, Lenin returned from exile. This move worsened Russia’s food supply problems. In response to their present conditions the Russian people, composed mainly of workers marched to the winter palace of Tsar Nicholas II on January 22 1905. Czar Nicholas was ruling in Russia at the time. The industrial works were also sufferings. BACKGROUND and CAUSES RUSSIA AT THE TURN OF 20TH CENTURY. The Industrial Revolution in Russia doubled the population in urban areas such as St Petersburg and Moscow, putting a strain on the infrastructure of the cities and leading to overcrowding and pollution. As of 1916, three-quarters of the Russian population had been freed from serfdom in 1861 but were deep in debt to the government. The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied key locations across St. Petersburg and Russia as a whole soon formed a new government with Lenin as its head. But kept delaying them in order to not lose his grip … The Russian Bolshevik revolution was responsible for the commencement of the cold war in the long run as the Cold War was the outcome of the ideological difference between capitalism and communism. None felt this more severely than Russia, which had entered the war confident but in a precarious political, economic and social state. Topic – I ndustrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.. 2) The Russian Revolution and the World War I were intertwined. In the year 1917, two revolutions took place in Russia. The Russian parliament – the Duma – formed a provisional government on March 12. They were joined by industrial workers and clashed with the police on the streets. America.By AD 1770’s, there were 13 colonies of Great Britain in North America.The colonial government was represented by the British crown (King George III The Russian economy had made great industrial advances in the two decades prior to 1914 – but it was still under-developed and ill-equipped to supply a prolonged war. Two revolutions that led to the demise of Tsarist regime of Russia and eventual establishment of USSR Time period – February to October 1917. To this effect, he dissolved the Russian parliament through which he had promised to implement reforms. ; The ideas propounded by philosophers and intellectuals instigated people to revolt against the absolutist French Monarch, which led to the French revolution in 1789 after the fall of Bastille. The Russian defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905 had shaken the foundations of the Czarist regime. On 12 March 1917 the capital city of St. Petersburg (renamed Petrograd, later Leningrad and once again, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, St. Petersburg) fell into the hands of the revolutionaries. Coupon Code: 'Mrunal.org' gives extra discount for ‍ Pratik Nayak's New UPSC Prelims & Mains Courses at https://learn.unacademy.com/@nayakpratik/courses Visit the linked article to get tips on how to study world history for UPSC Mains, But this was not the end of troubles for the new government. The strikes further threatened to cripple Russia’s already fragile economy. The philosophical and intellectual movements during the 17 th and 18 th century enlightened European society. The situation of industrial unrest developed by the opening of the 20. o more and the level of discontent continued to increase among the masses. The new government under Alexander Kerensky established a statuette of rights such as freedom of speech and the rights of unions to organize and strike. Nehru. HOW TO WRITE ESSAY FOR UPSC ON CURRENT ISSUES? The Soviet Union would become a formidable player during the events of the, Candidates can find out what are the topics in the UPSC Exams by visiting the. That’s why this revolution is considered to be complementary to the French Revolution. The Russian Revolution took place in 1917, during the final phase of World War I. Despite this, he continued the war with Germany contrary to the popular opposition against it. To know more about UPSC Mains visit the linked article. The popularity of communism in the world increased enormously. The Julian calendar date of the revolution is given as February 23. Conditions of peasants: Majority of the Russians were agriculturalists. Alexandra, called Alix, also faced family opposition to the match. 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